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Equipment

 

 

Geophysics

Ground-penetrating radar

GPR survey on a rock glacier in the Argentinian Andes Hardware
  • MALA RAMAC/GPR Control Unit II (CU II)
  • 25, 50, 100, 200 MHz Unshielded Antennas
  • 250, 500 MHz Shielded Antennas
  • Panasonic Toughbooks CF-18 and CF-29 for data acquisition and analysis

Software
  • RAMAC Ground Vision for data acquisition
  • REFLEXW for data analysis
Processed GPR profile (top) and geomorphological interpretations (bottom)

Methodological principle

Ground-penetrating radar is a technique that uses high-frequency electromagnetic waves to acquire information on subsurface composition. The electromagnetic pulse is emitted from a transmitter antenna and propagates through the subsurface at a velocity determined by the dielectric properties of the subsurface materials. The pulse is reflected by inhomogeneities and layer boundaries and is received by a second antenna after a measured travel time (Schrott and Sass, 2008, Geomorphology).

DC resistivity

GeoTomMK1E100 RES/IP/SP Hardware
  • GeoTomMK1E100 RES/IP/SP
  • 110 Electrodes
  • up to 400m profile length with 4m electrode spacing
  • Panasonic Toughbooks CF-18 and CF-29 for data acquisition and analysis

Software
  • GeoTom 7.x for data acquisition
  • RES2DINV, RES3DINV, DC2DInvRes and BERT for data analysis
Processed ERT profile Methodological principle

Ground-penetrating radar is a technique that uses high-frequency electromagnetic waves to acquire information on subsurface composition. The electromagnetic pulse is emitted from a transmitter antenna and propagates through the subsurface at a velocity determined by the dielectric properties of the subsurface materials. The pulse is reflected by inhomogeneities and layer boundaries and is received by a second antenna after a measured travel time (Schrott and Sass, 2008, Geomorphology).

Refraction seismic

Geometrics Geode 24 channel seismograph

Hardware
  • Geometrics Geode 24 channel seismograph
  • 24 geophones with 14 Hz
  • 48 geophones with 10 Hz
  • 6 Cables with take outs of 5 - 10 m
  • Panasonic Toughbook CF-29 and CF 18 for data acquisition and analysis

Software
  • Seismodul control for data acquisition
  • REFLEXW for data analysis
Processed refraction seismic profile Methodological principle

The principle of seismic refraction is based on elastic waves travelling through different subsurface materials, such as sand, gravel, and bedrock, at different velocities. The denser the material, the faster the waves travel. On the basis of measured apparent velocities conclusions about subsurface structures can be drawn (Schrott and Sass, 2008, Geomorphology).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Terrestrial Laserscanning

Terrestrial Laserscanning

Riegl LMS-Z620 terrestrial laser scanner Hardware
  • Riegl LMS-Z620
  • Measurement range 2 - 2000 m
  • Accuracy 10 mm
  • Minimum angle stepwidth 0.004°
  • Inclination Sensors (integrated)
  • Target detection mode: first target, last target or alternating
  • Panasonic Toughbook CF-29 and CF 18 for data acquisition and analysis

Software
  • RiSCAN PRO for data acquisition and processing

Differential GPS

Differential GPS

Trimble ProXRT Hardware
  • Trimble 5800 GPS Receiver
  • Trimble Pathfinder ProXRT Receiver
  • Trimble Nomad field computer


Software

  • Trimble TerraSync for data acquisition
  • Trimble GPS Pathfinder for data processing

Drilling / Coring

Coring and shallow drilling


Drilling equipment Hardware
  • Geotechnik Dunkel HST 300 Hydraulic station
  • Sampling Tubes at 36, 42, 50, 60 and 80 mm diameter and 1000 and 2000 mm length
  • Inliner sampling Tubes at 45, 63 and 75 mm diameter and 1000 and 2000 mm lenght
  • PVC Liner - transparent and grey
  • Slotted Probing Rod at 36 mm diameter and 1000 mm lenght
  • Rods
Drilling cores Methodological principle

Coring is a method to get core samples from the ground. Core samples may be used for core dating and soil science and in combination with various scientific methods.

Hydrology

Hydrological samping

EcoTech automated water sampler Hardware
  • EcTech automated water sampler
  • YSI multi-parameter water quality sensor incl. turbidity, conductivity, temperatur and stage sensor
  • Helley Smith hand held bed load sampler

Software

  • EcoWatch for real-time data aquisition
  • EcoRead for data transfer and basic analyses
YSI multi-parameter water quality sensor
Helley Smith bed load sampler

 

OSL/TL

Luminescence Dating - Method

Both, optically stimulated and thermo-luminescence (OSL and TL) are physical phenomena that are routinely used in dating laboratories to establish the time when a mineral was last exposed to light or heat. In the laboratory the dose is determined that produces the same luminescence as the dose delivered to the mineral due to natural radioactivity (α-, β-, γ- and cosmic radiation). The age is calculated by dividing this dose by the natural dose-rate in the environment from which the mineral was sampled. The simplified equation for calculating the age of the sample is:

age [a] = dose [Gy] / dose rate [Gy/a]

Datable events can be sediment transport and deposition that are studied in geomorphology, but also burning of pottery for archaeological research.
Typical materials used for dating are Quaternary sediments, which usually contain quartz and feldspar. Generally, these minerals are very common in all sediments. Natural radionuclides (40K, 87Rb, U-Th-series) emit ionising radiation that impacts with the minerals by moving electrons to metastable states in defects of the crystal lattice. The charge at the metastable state is stored for extended periods of time until the electrons are released when absorbing external energy. The external stimulation can be obtained by light (OSL) or by heat (TL). For OSL, different wavelengths of light are used for stimulation, like infrared (IR), green and blue. During the stimulation process the trapped electrons decay from the metastable state and cause the emission of light (photons) in shorter wavelength, which is detected as luminescence signal by the luminescence reader.
The signal intensity depends on the time elapsed (since the last light- or heat impact on the material) and – as a very first approximation – the higher the luminescence signal intensity, the higher the accumulated dose and – in consequence – the older the sample.

 

OSL/TL Laboratory

Equipment:

The Lexsyg smart (Freiberg Instruments) is an automated thermal & optical stimulating luminescence (TL/OSL) reader for standard luminescence measurements & dating of quaternary rock samples.

Facts:

  • Beta source (Sr–90, 1.85 GBq)
  • Filter changer with 6 positions
  • 40 position sample wheel
Measuring Laboratory Lexsyg smart with blue LEDs

Lexsyg smart with green LEDs

Sample wheel (40 positions)

OSL:

  • Blue (458 nm, 100 mW/cm2)
  • Green (525 nm, 80mW/cm2)
  • Infrared (850 nm, 300 mW/cm2) illuminations at sample position

TL:

  • Heating up to 710°C with different ramping rates under nitrogen atmosphere

PMT:

  • Hamamatsu photomultiplier tube with high detection efficiency (300-650 nm)

Preparation Laboratory for physical & chemical treatment

Journals

Upcoming Conferences

Recent Conferences

 

Varia

Environmental measurement devices

  • Several handhelds and devices with sensor registering:
    • Conductivity
    • Temperatur
    • Humidity
    • pH/REDOX
    • Stream flow
    • Oxygen
  • Panasonic Toughbooks for data acquisition
  • BTS equipment
 
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